TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURIES (TBI)
There are many types of TBI.
A skull fracture is a fracture of the hard, bony covering of the head. A closed skull fracture is occurs when there is a break in the bony covering of the skull without a break in the skin. An open skull fracture occurs when there is also a break in the skin or scalp.
A contusion occurs when the force of an impact forces the brain to hit the skull. A coup contusion occurs at the point of impact with the skull. A contrecoup contusion occurs opposite the point of impact with the skull.
A concussion is an injury deep in the brain that can cause problems with consciousness.
A hematoma occurs when a blood vessel is broken after an impact. This can cause a blood clot of the brain.
A penetrating head injury occurs when some outside force penetrates an object into the brain.
An anoxic brain injury results when the brain is deprived of oxygen.
A subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs when a clot forms between the brain and under the arachnoid membrane space.
A subdural hemorrhage occurs when a clot forms between the dura and the brainl
Other hemorrhages and hematomas are location specific, such as intraventricular, intracerebral and epidural blood clots.
A diffuse axonal injury is damage to the white matter (axions) of the brain.
Second impact syndrome occurs when a person suffers a second TBI before the first one is fully healed.
Each of these brain injuries can be very serious and deserve immediate medical attention in a well-equipped hospital setting.